Freescale i.MX51 SDMA tutorial (part III)

This post was written by eli on October 26, 2011
Posted Under: ARM,NXP (Freescale)

This is part III of a brief tutorial about the i.MX51′s SDMA core. The SDMA for other i.MX devices, e.g. i.MX25, i.MX53 and i.MX6 is exactly the same, with changes in the registers’ addresses and different chapters in the Reference Manual.

This is by no means a replacement for reading the Reference Manual, but rather an introduction to make the landing softer. The division into part goes as follows:


Even though an SDMA script can be kicked off (or made eligible for running, to be precise) by the application processor, regardless of any external events, there’s a lot of sense in letting the peripheral kick off the script(s) directly, so the application processor doesn’t have to be bothered with an interrupt every time.

So the system has 48 predefined SDMA events, listed in section 3.3 of the Reference Manual. Each of these events can turn one or several channels eligible for executing by automatically setting their EP flag. Which of the channels will have its EP flag set is determined by the SDMA event’s CHNENBL register. There are 48 such registers, one for each SMDA register, with each of its 32 bits corresponding to an SDMA channel: If bit i is set, the event linked with the register will set EP[i]. Note that these registers have unknown values on powerup, so if event driven SDMA is enabled, all registers must be initialized, or hell breaks loose.

In a normal flow, EP[i] is zero when an event is about to set this flag: If it was set by a previous event, the respective SDMA script should have finished, and hence cleared the flag before the next event occurred. Since attempting to set EP[i] when it’s already set may indicate that the event came too early (or the script is too late), there’s an CHNERR[i] flag, which latches such errors, so that the application processor can make itself informed about such a condition. This can also trigger an interrupt, if the respective bit in INTRMASK is set. The application processor can read these flags (and reset them at the same time) in the EVTERR register.

I’d like to draw special attention to events #14 and #15, which are driven by external pins, namely GPIO1_4 and GPIO1_5. These two make it possible for an external chip (e.g. an FPGA) request service without involving the application processor. A rising edge on these lines creates an event when the IOMUX is set to ALT1 (SDMA_EXT_EVENT) on the relevant pins. Note that setting the IOMUX to just GPIO won’t do it.

It’s important to note, that the combination of the EP[i] flag being cleared by the script itself with the edge-triggered nature of the event signal creates an inevitable risk for a race condition: There is no rigorous way for the script to make sure that a “DONE 4″ instruction, which was intended to clear a previous event won’t clear one that just arrived to create another. The CHNERR[i] flag will indicate that the event arrived before the previous one was cleared, but in some implementations, that can actually be a legal condition. This can be solved by emulating a level-triggered event with a constantly toggling event line, when the external hardware wants servicing. This will make CHNERR[i] go high for sure, but otherwise it’s fine.

This possible race condition is not a design bug of the SDMA subsystem. Rather, it was designed with SDMA script which finish faster than the next event in mind. The “I need service” kind of design was not considered.


By executing a “DONE 3″ command, the SDMA scripts can generate interrupts on the application processor by setting the HI[i] flag, where i is the channel number of the currently running script. This will assert interrupt #6 on the application processor, which handles it like any other interrupt.

The H[i] flags can be read by the application processor in the INTR register (see section in the Reference Manual). An interrupt handler should scan this register to determine which channel requests an interrupt. There is no masking mechanism for individual H[i]‘s. The global interrupt #6 can be disabled, but an individual channel can’t be masked from generating interrupts.

If any of the INTRMASK bits is set, the EVTERR register should also be scanned, or at least cleared, since CHNERR[i] conditions generate interrupts which are indistinguishable from H[i] interrupts.

“DONE 3″, which is the only instruction available for setting HI[i] also clears HE[i], so it was clearly designed to work with scripts kicked off directly by the application processor. In order to issue an interrupt from a script, which is kicked off by an event, a little trick can be used: According to section 52.21.2 in the Reference Manual (the detail for the DONE instruction), “DONE 3″ means “clear HE, set HI for the current channel and reschedule”. In other words, make the current channel ineligible of execution unless HO[i] is set, and set HI[i] so an interrupt is issued. But event-driven channels do have HO[i] set, so clearing HE[i] has no significance whatsoever. According to table 52-4, the context will be saved, and then restored immediately. So there will be a slight waste of time with context writes and reads, but since the most likely instruction following this “DONE 3″ is a “DONE 4″ (that is, clear EP[i], the event-driven script has finished), the impact is rather minimal. Anyhow, I still haven’t tried this for real, but I will soon.

So much for part III. You may want to go on with Part IV: Running custom SDMA scripts in Linux



Add a Comment

required, use real name
required, will not be published
optional, your blog address